Characteristics of the Ukrainian language in AX Semantics

Fundamentals

In Ukrainian, you need to know the gender and animacy of a noun to form (together with number and case) the accompanying adjectives, determiners, numerals, and pronouns correctly.

Ukrainian has three genders for nouns: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Masculine nouns also differentiate between animate and inanimate. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Additionally, Ukrainian has 7 cases for nouns.

grammatical namevaluesexamples
gendermasculine inanimateстарий будинок
(old house)
masculine animateстарий лікар
(old doctor)
feminineстара жінка
(old woman)
neuterстаре місце
(old place)
------
numbersingularвеликий будинок
(big house)
pluralвеликі будинки
(big houses)
------
cases (noun)nominativeжінка (woman)
genitiveголос жінки.
(The voice of the woman.)
dativeВін дарує жінці. квіти
(He gives flowers to the girl.)
accusativeВін бачить жінку.
(He sees the woman.)
instrumentalВін іде з жінкою.
(He goes with the woman.)
locativeДитина лежить на жінці.
(The child lies on the woman.)
vocativeЖінко! (Woman!)
------
adjectives (noun)pre-nounгарний дім
(nice home)
------
verb tensespresentживе
(he/she lives)
pastвоно жив
(he lived)
futureбуде жити
(he will live)

The standard order of a noun phrase in Ukrainian is the following: preposition + determiner + numeral + adjective + noun.

See for example:

про    ці     три    популярні  книги
about  these  three  popular    books[pl,acc]
PREP   DET    NUM    ADJ        NOUN
"about these three popular books"

Lexicon

Nouns

For Ukrainian nouns, the LEXICON needs to encode gender, animacy and preposition changes. If a lexicon entry is missing, the NLG platform tries to find the most probable gender based on heuristics. The number x case forms of a noun should be added to the lexicon if they are not regular.

Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners, adjectives, numerals and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.

Examples

The basic lexicon entry for будинок (house) contains:

  • gender/animacy: male inanimate
  • inflection table for case and number:
SingularPlural
Nominativeбуди́нокбуди́нки
Genitiveбуди́нкубуди́нків
Dativeбуди́нковібуди́нкам
Accusativeбуди́нокбуди́нки
Instrumentalбуди́нкомбуди́нками
Locativeбуди́нковібуди́нках
Vocativeбуди́нкубуди́нки

note

If you need lexicon entries for countries, write to the support about that and you will get them for Ukrainian with automatic handling of prepositions.

Adjectives

In the lexicon, the inflection table for gender, animacy, case, and number can be encoded. For adjective position, the default is "before noun".

Verbs

The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects the wrong way, you should add it to the lexicon.

*Please note that the future tense can be formed by taking the present tense conjugation of the verb бути and using it with the infinitive of the verb.

Container settings

Numerals

The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.

cardinalordinal
textдев'ять днів
(nine days)
дев'ятий день
(the ninth day)
digit9 днів
(9 days)
9-й день
(the 9th day)

For Ukrainian, both cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 10, otherwise (above 10) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example,

десять автомобілів
(ten cars)
11 автомобілів
(11 cars)

In Ukrainian, case and number for noun/adjective change based on numerals, for example:

Numeralcase / numberexample
1 (also numbers ending in 1, excluding 11)Nominative/Singular1 будинок (1 house)
21 будинок (21 houses)
2-4 (also numbers ending in 2-4, excluding 12-14)Nominative/Plural3 будинки (3 houses)
23 будинки (23 houses)
>= 5Genitive/Plural7 будинків (7 houses)

Prepositions

If users configure prepositions in the container, they are automatically adapted, if phonetic assimilation needs to happen. As the below example shows, the preposition з changes to зі before words starting with a sibilant (like ш in the example below) + another consonant (like к in the example).

з Аргентини
(from Argentina)

зі школи
(from school)

Examples

Preposition switch

On the AX NLG platform the settings for the container Німеччина (Germany) are: preposition="в" and case="acc".

в Німеччині
(in Germany)

For the below sentence but with a different country (i.e. the Philippines), the platform settings are the same as above (preposition="в"case="acc"), but the lexical information changes the result and shows a preposition switch from в to на:

на Філіппінах
(in the Philippines)