Characteristics of the Dutch Language in AX Semantics
In Dutch, you need to know the gender of a noun to form (together with number and case) the accompanying adjectives, determiners, numerals, and pronouns correctly.
Dutch has three genders for nouns: masculine, feminine, and neuter. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Additionally, Dutch only has nominative case for nouns, but includes accusative and dative case for personal pronouns.
|gender||masculine||de oude hond |
(the old dog)
|feminine||de oude vrouw |
(the old woman)
|neuter||het oude huis |
(the old house)
|number||singular||groot huis |
|plural||grote huizen |
|cases (noun)||nominative||vrouw (woman)|
|cases (pronoun)||accusative||Ik heb hen gisteren gezien. |
(I've seen them yesterday.)
|dative||Hij heeft hun verraden. |
(He has betrayed them.)
|adjectives (noun)||before noun||rode appel |
|verb tenses||present||hij gaat |
|past||hij ging |
The standard order of a noun phrase in Dutch is the following:
preposition + determiner + numeral + adjective + noun.
See for example:
over deze drie populaire boeken about these three popular books[pl] PREP DET NUM ADJ NOUN "about these three popular books"
For Dutch nouns, the lexicon needs to encode gender and determiner and preposition changes. The number x case forms of a noun should be added to the lexicon if they are not regular.
If a lexicon entry is missing, determiners, adjectives, numerals, and pronouns, which would need lexical information to inflect, are omitted.
The basic lexicon entry for huis (house) contains:
- gender: neuter
- inflection table for case and number:
If you need lexicon entries for countries, write to the support about that and you will get them for Dutch with automatic handling of prepositions.
In the lexicon, the inflection table for gender, case, and number can be encoded. For adjective position, the default is "before noun";.
The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects the wrong way, you should add it to the lexicon.
The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Dutch: definite, indefinite, demonstrative, relative, possessive, and quantifier (every).
The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.
|text||negen dagen |
|de negende dag |
(the ninth day)
|digit||9 dagen |
|de 9e dag |
(the 9th day)
For Dutch, both cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 100 on the platform, otherwise (above 100) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:
honderd auto's (one hundred cars) vs. 101 auto's (101 cars)
Determiners can be switched according to lexical information.If you set the determiner switch for a specific noun in the lexicon, it will automatically switch to another determiner when you add the determiner you intend to switch in the container. The container setting for
Duitsland in the first example is:
preposition="in", determiner is unset (blank), and
in Duitsland <no determiner> (in Germany)
In the second example, the container settings stay the same for
Filippijnen. However, the determiner automatically switches from
definite, because the determiner switch is configured in the lexicon. As the result, the definite determiner
de is added to
in de Filippijnen <switch to definite determiner> (in the Philippines)
If the lexicon entry of a country includes a switch from none to definite, there is still a way to use the country without the article (e.g. just "Philippines"). The determiner will always remain
none by setting
determiner=none in the container. Only an
unset determiner (blank) triggers the switch from
none to another determiner.
On the AX NLG platform, the settings for the container
Duitsland (Germany) are:
in Duitsland (in Germany)
For the below sentence with a different place (i.e. Sylt), the platform settings are the same as above (
preposition="in", case="nom"), but the lexical information changes the preposition and shows a switch from
op Sylt (on Sylt)
The AX NLG platform offers 2 variants of the Dutch language:
The differences between these variants are mostly lexical.