Characteristics of the Kazakh language in AX Semantics


In Kazakh, you need to know the case and number of a noun in order to form the correct determiners and pronouns. Kazakh has no gender for nouns. There are two numbers: singular and plural. In addition, Kazakh has seven cases for nouns.

grammatical namevaluesexamples
genitiveиттің қоңырауы
[ïttiñ qoñırawı]
(the dog's bell)
dativeМен допты итке беремін. [men doptı ïtke beremin.]
(I give the ball to the dog.)
accusativeМен итті көріп тұрмын.
[men ïtti körip turmın.]
(I see the dog.)
(in the dog)
instrumentalМен итпен серуендеймін.
[men ïtpen serwendeymin.]
(I walk with the dog.)
ablativeMен үйректі иттен аламын.
[men üyrekti ïtten alamın]
(I get the duck from the dog.)
adjectives (noun)before nounқызыл алма
[qızıl alma]
(red apple)
verb tensespresentол барады
[ol baradı]
(he goes)
pastол барды
[ol bardı]
(he went)

The standard order of a noun phrase in Kazakh is the following:

determiner + numeral + adjective + noun + preposition

See for example:

осы     үш     жаңа кітап  туралы
[osı    üş     jaña kitap  twralı]
these   three  new  books  about
"about these three new books"



Kazakh nouns inflect for number and case. Nouns should be added to the lexicon if they are not regular. Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.


The basic lexicon entry for ит  [it] (dog) contains:

  • inflection table for case and number:
Nominativeит [ït]иттер [ïtter]
Genitiveиттің [ïttiñ]иттердің [ïtterdıñ]
Dativeитке [ïtke]иттерге [ïtterge]
Accusativeитті [ïttı]иттерді [ïtterdı]
Locativeитте [ïtte]иттерде [ïtterde]
Ablativeиттен [ïtten]иттерден [ïtterden]
Instrumentalитпен [ïtpen]иттермен [ïttermen]


In Kazakh, the default position for an adjective is "before noun". Kazakh adjectives don't inflect.


Kazakh verbs inflect for person, number and tense. Note that the AX NLG platform also supports the polite form of the 2nd person. For example:

2nd Person:
сен барасың  [sen barasıñ] (you go)
2nd Person Polite:
сіз барасыз [siz barasız] (you(polite) go)

The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects the wrong way, you should add it to the lexicon.

Container settings


The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Kazakh: indefinite, demonstrative (proximal), quantifier (every), and possessives.


The AX NLG platform supports the following pronouns for Kazakh: personal, demonstrative (proximal), and possessive 3rd.


Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit. Take күн [kün] (day) for example:

textтоғыз күн
[toğız kün]
(nine days)
тоғызыншы күн
[toğızınşı kün]
(the ninth day)
digit9 күн
[toğız kün]
(9 days)
9. күн
[toğızınşı kün]
(the 9th day)

For Kazakh, both cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 100 on the platform, otherwise (above 100) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:

жүз ит
[jüz ït]
(one hundred dogs)
101 ит
[101 ït]
(101 dogs)


Kazakh uses both pre- and postpositions. On the AX NLG platform, only postpositions can be directly set in Kazakh containers, but prepositions can be put before the container as plain text.

Vowel harmony

The AX platform applies vowel harmony automatically. Vowel harmony means that many inflection suffixes have different variants, that are used depending on what kind of vowels a word contains.

Take for example changing the case of a noun from nominative to genitive. The genitive suffix -ың [ıñ] (back vowel) is added to a noun with a back vowel root , whereas -ің [iñ] (front vowel) is added to a noun with a front vowel root.

шам [şam](candle)+ ың [ıñ] -> шамның [şamnıñ] (candle's) 
газет [gazet] (newspaper)+ ің [iñ] -> газеттің [gazettiñ] (newspaper's)