Characteristics of the Malay language in AX Semantics
In Malay, you need to know the number of a noun to form the corresponding pronouns. Malay has neither grammatical case nor gender. There are two numbers: singular and plural.
|adjectives (noun)||after noun||epal merah|
|verb tenses||present||dia makan|
The standard order of a noun phrase in Malay is the following:
preposition + numeral + noun + adjective + determiner. See for example:
kira-kira tiga penyanyi popular ini (about three singers popular these) PREP NUM NOUN ADJ DET "about these three popular singers"
Malay nouns inflect for number. Nouns should be added to the lexicon if they do not inflect regularly.
Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.
The basic lexicon entry for
rumah (house) contains:
- inflection table for number:
In Malay, the default position for an adjective is "after noun". Malay adjectives do not inflect, so there is no need to add lexical entries for them.
Malay verbs do not inflect (neither for number, person nor tense) and rather use time adverbs (e.g.,
semalam (yesterday) ). Take
makan (to eat) for example:
dia makan (he eats) dia makan semalam (he ate yesterday) saya makan (I eat) saya makan semalam (I ate yesterday)
The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Malay: demonstratives (distal + proximal) and possessives.
The AX NLG platform supports the following pronouns for Malay: personal, demonstratives (distal + proximal), and 3rd person possessive.
However, Malay pronouns are frequently omitted, because it is more common to use a person's name or title to refer to them instead of using a pronoun. For example, instead of saying "
Adakah dia mahu pergi? (Does she want to go?)", one might say "
Mahukah Puan pergi? (Would Madam like to go?)" without personal pronoun.
Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit. Take
hari (day) for example:
(the ninth day)
(the 9th day)
As the above table shows, nouns after cardinals will not be pluralized. Therefore,
hari (day) stays in singular because of the numeral
sembilan (nine). Besides, the order of a noun phrase changes when the numeral is an ordinal. Ordinal numerals usually stand after the noun.
For Malay, cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 12, otherwise (above 12) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:
dua belas rumah (twelve houses) 13 rumah (13 houses)
The AX NLG platform offers 2 variants of the Malay language:
The main differences between these dialects are pronunciation and vocabulary.