Characteristics of the Indonesian language in AX Semantics
In Indonesian, you need to know the number of a noun to form the corresponding pronouns. Indonesian has neither grammatical case nor gender. There are two numbers: singular and plural.
|adjectives (noun)||after noun||apel merah|
|verb tenses||present||dia makan|
The standard order of a noun phrase in Indonesian is the following:
preposition + numeral + noun + adjective + determiner. See for example:
tentang tiga penyanyi populer ini (about three singers popular these) PREP NUM NOUN ADJ DET "about these three popular singers"
Indonesian nouns inflect for number. Nouns should be added to the lexicon if they do not inflect regularly.
Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.
The basic lexicon entry for
murid (student) contains:
- inflection table for number:
In Indonesian, the default position for an adjective is "after noun". Indonesian adjectives do not inflect, so there is no need to add lexical entries for them.
Indonesian verbs do not inflect (neither for number, person nor tense) and rather use time adverbs (e.g.,
kemarin (yesterday)). Take
belajar (to study) for example:
dia belajar (he studys) dia belajar kemarin (he studied yesterday) saya belajar (I study) Saya belajar kemarin (I studied yesterday)
The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Indonesian: demonstratives (distal + proximal) and possessives.
The AX NLG platform supports the following pronouns for Indonesian: personal, demonstratives (distal + proximal), and possessive.
However, Indonesian pronouns are frequently omitted, because it is more common to use a person's name or title to refer to them instead of using a pronoun. For example, instead of saying "
Kamu mau pergi? (Do you want to go?)", one might say "
Johnny mau pergi? (Does Johnny want to go?)" without personal pronoun.
Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit. Take
hari (day) for example:
(the ninth day)
|- hari ke–9 |
(the 9th day)
As the above table shows, nouns after cardinals will not be pluralized. Therefore,
hari (day) stays in singular because of numeral
sembilan (nine). Besides, ordinal numerals usually stand after the noun.
For Indonesian, both cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 12 on the platform, otherwise (above 12) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:
dua belas mobil (twelve cars) vs. 13 mobil (13 cars)