Characteristics of the Danish language in AX Semantics
In Danish, you need to know the gender of a noun to form (together with number, case and definiteness) the accompanying adjectives, determiners, numerals, and pronouns correctly.
Danish has two genders for nouns: neuter and common. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Additionally, Danish has nominative and genitive case for nouns.
|gender||neuter||det dejlige hus |
(the lovely house)
|common||den dejlige aften |
(the lovely evening)
|number||singular||nyt ur |
|plural||nye ure |
|adjectives (noun)||before noun||rødt æble |
|verb tenses||present||han går |
|past||han gik |
The standard order of a noun phrase in Danish is the following:
preposition + determiner + numeral + adjective + noun.
See for example:
om disse tre populære bøger about these three popular books[pl] PREP DET NUM ADJ NOUN "about these three popular books"
Danish nouns are inflected for number (singular/plural), case (nominative/genitive), and definiteness (indefinite/definite). Nouns should be added to the lexicon with their grammatical gender if they do not inflect regularly. If the lexicon entry is missing, the NLG platform tries to find the most probable gender based on heuristics.
Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners, adjectives, numerals and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.
The basic lexicon entry for aften (evening) contains:
- gender: common
- inflection table for case and number:
The lexicon above expects the indefinite forms of the noun. The definite forms are automatically inflected as the below examples show:
aften -> aftenen (evening -> the evening) hus -> huset (house -> the house)
If you need lexicon entries for countries, write to the support about that and you will get them for Danish with automatic handling of prepositions.
In the lexicon, the inflection table encodes gender, case, number and definiteness. For adjective position, the default is "before noun".
Danish verbs do not inflect for person or number, but only vary according to tense.
The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects incorrectly, you should add it to the lexicon.
The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Danish: definite, indefinite, demonstrative, and possessive.
The definite article in Danish is mostly expressed by a suffix on the noun. An additional definite article is only added to noun phrases with adjectives or numerals, see for example:
den nye flaske (the new bottle) vs. flasken (the bottle)
The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.
|text||ni dage |
|den niende dag |
(the ninth day)
|digit||9 dage |
|den 9. dag |
(the 9th day)
For Danish, ordinal numerals are written out until 10, otherwise (above 10) the output is in digit form. Cardinal numerals are written out until 20, otherwise (above 20) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:
tyve biler (twenety cars) 21 biler (21 cars)
On the AX NLG platform, the settings for the container (Germany) are:
i Tyskland (in Germany)
For the below sentence with a different place (i.e. Iceland), the platform settings are the same as above (
preposition="i", case="nom"), but the lexical information changes the preposition and shows a switch from
på Kreta (in Crete)