Characteristics of the Lithuanian language in AX Semantics


In Lithuanian, you need to know the gender of a noun to form (together with number and case) the accompanying adjectives, determiners, numerals, and pronouns correctly.

Lithuanian has two genders for nouns: masculine, feminine. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Additionally, Lithuanian has seven cases for nouns.

grammatical namevaluesexamples
gender (noun)masculinesenasis gydytojas
(the old doctor)
femininesenoji moteris
(the old woman)
numbersingularsenasis automobilis
(the old car)
pluralsenieji automobiliai
(the old cars)
genitivešuns skambutis
(dog's bell)
dativeDuodu kamuolį šuniui.
(I give the ball to the dog.)
accusativeMatau šunį.
(I see the dog.)
instrumentalAklasis vaikšto su šuniu.
(The blind man walks with a dog.)
locativeKaulas buvo šunyje.
(The bone was in the dog.)
vocativeEi, šunie!
(Hey, dog!)
adjectives (noun)before nounraudonasis namas
(red house)
verb tensespresentJis dìrba
(he works)
pastJis dìrbo
(he worked)

The standard order of a noun phrase in Lithuanian is the following:

preposition + determiner + numeral + adjective + noun

See for example:

apie   šias   tris   populiarias knygas
about  these  three  popular     book
PREP   DET    NUM    ADJ         NOUN
"about these three popular books"



Lithuanian nouns are inflected for number and case. When the lexicon entry is missing, the NLG platform will try to find the most probable gender based on heuristics. However, nouns should be added to the lexicon with their grammatical gender if they do not inflect regularly.

Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners, adjectives and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.


The basic lexicon entry for šuo (dog) contains:

  • gender: masculine
  • inflection table for case and number:


If you need lexicon entries for countries, contact support about that and you will get them for Lithuanian with automatic handling of prepositions.


In the lexicon, the inflection table encodes gender, case, and number. For adjective position, the default is "before noun". Unlike nouns, adjectives actually have three genders, but neuter adjectives are not used in noun phrases and are not inflected.


Lithuanian verbs inflect for person, number, and tense. The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects incorrectly, you should add it to the lexicon.

Container settings


The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Lithuanian: demonstrative, possessive, and quantifier (every). Lithuanian does not have definite and indefinite determiners.


The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.

textdevynios dienos
(nine days)
devintą dieną
(the ninth day)
digit9 dienos
(9 days)
9. dieną
(the 9th day)

For Lithuanian, both cardinal and ordinal numerals up to 20 are written out on the platform. Additionally, cardinal numerals that are multiples of 10 up to 100 (e.g. 30, 40, etc.) are also written out. The outputs of other numerals are in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example (written out vs. digit):

vienuolika automobilių
(eleven cars)
devyniasdešimt automobilių
(ninty cars)
101 automobilis
(101 cars)

Note that if cardinal numerals are written out, numerals ending with 1-9 will inflect for gender. However, this rule does not apply to teens (11-19). For example:

cardinal numeralsexample
1-9aštuoni gydytojai [m.]
(eight doctors [m.])
aštuonios moterys
(eight women[f.])
teensaštuoniolika gydytojų
(eighteen doctors[m.])
aštuoniolika moterų
(eighteen women[f.])