Characteristics of the Hindi language in AX Semantics


In Hindi, you need to know the case, number, and gender of a noun to form the accompanying adjectives, determiners, numerals, and pronouns correctly.

Hindi has two genders for nouns: masculine and feminine. There are also two numbers: singular and plural. Additionally, Hindi has three cases for nouns.

grammatical namevaluesexamples
numbersingularपुरानी कार
[puraanee kaar]
(old car)
pluralपुरानी कारें
[puraanee kaaren]
(old cars)
gendermasculineबूढ़ा डॉक्ट
[boodha dokt]
(old doctor)
feminineबूढ़ी लेडी
[boodhee ledee]
(old lady)
case (noun)directबच्चा
(the child)
obliqueमैं उस बच्चे से बात करता हूँ।
[main us bachche se baat karata hoon]
(I talk to the child.)
[o bachche]
(Hey, child!)
adjectives (noun)before nounएक लाल सेब
[ek laal seb]
(a red apple)
verb tensespresentवह पढ़ता है
[vah padhata hai]
(he reads)
pastवह पढ़ता था
[vah padhata tha]
(he read)

The standard order of a noun phrase in Hindi is the following:

determiner + numeral + adjective + noun + preposition

See for example:

इन      तीन     लोकप्रिय    गायकों      के बारे में
[in    teen    lokapriy gaayakon  ke baare mein]
these   three  popular  singers   about
DET     NUM    ADJ      NOUN      PREP
"about these three popular singers"



Hindi nouns are inflected for case and number. Nouns should be added to the lexicon with their grammatical gender if they do not inflect regularly.

Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners, adjectives, numerals, and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.


The basic lexicon entry for बच्चा [baccā] (child) contains:

  • gender: masculine
  • inflection table for case and number:
Directबच्चा [bachcha]बच्चे [bachche]
Obliqueबच्चे [bachche]बच्चों [bachchon]
Vocativeबच्चे [bachche]बच्चो [bachcho]


In the lexicon, the inflection table encodes case, number, and gender. For adjective position, "before noun" is the default.


Hindi verbs inflect for gender, number, person, and tense. The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects incorrectly, you should add it to the lexicon.

Container settings


The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Hindi: demonstratives (proximal + distal) and possessives.


Hindi numerals have their own digits (e.g., 1=१), which are distinct from the Arabic numerals 0-9. The AX NLG platform still supports Arabic numerals for Hindi. The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.

textनौ दिन
[nau din]
(nine days)
नौवां दिन
[nauvaan din]
(the ninth day)
digit9 दिन
[9 din]
(9 days)
9. दिन
[9. din]
(the 9th day)

For Hindi, both cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 20 on the platform, otherwise (above 20) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:

बीस कारें
[bees kaaren]
(twenty cars)
21 कारें
[21 kaaren]
(21 cars)