Characteristics of the Thai language in AX Semantics


Generally, Thai has neither gender nor number for nouns. However, the AX NLG platform supports two numbers (singular and plural) mainly for the usage of determiners and pronouns. Additionally, Thai has no cases for nouns.

grammatical namevaluesexamples
(personal pronoun)
adjectives (noun)after nounแอปเปิ้ลแดง
[xæppeîl dæng]
(a/the red-ลแดง apple-แอปเปิ้)
verb tensespresent/pastเขากิน
[kǎo gin]
(he-เขา eats-กิน)
[kǎo cha gin]
(he-เขา will-จะ eat-กิน)

The standard order of a noun phrase in Thai is the following: preposition + noun + adjective + numeral + determiner. See for example:

เกี่ยวกับ     นักร้อง      ยอดนิยมทั้ง       สาม     คนนี้
[keī̀ywkạb  nák-rɔ́ɔng  yxdniymthậng   sǎam    konnîi]
about      singers    popular        three   these
PREP       NOUN       ADJ            NUM     DET
"about these three popular singers"



Thai nouns could inflect for number. Nouns should be added to the lexicon if they do not inflect regularly.

Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.


The basic lexicon entry for บ้าน [bâan] (house) contains:

  • inflection table for number:


In Thai, "after noun" is the default for the adjective position. Thai adjectives stand behind the noun and do not inflect.


Thai verbs could inflect for tense. If a verb inflects incorrectly, you should add it to the lexicon. However, Thai verb tenses are usually configured by particles instead of morphology/inflection.

Container settings


The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Thai: demonstratives (proximal + distal) and possessives.


The AX NLG platform supports the following pronouns for Thai: demonstratives (proximal + distal), personal, and possessive.


Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit. Take วัน[wan] (day) for example:

[wạn gâao an]
(days-วัน nine-เก้า classifier-อัน)
[wạn xạn thī̀kêā]
(the day-วัน classifier-อัน ninth-ที่เก้า )
digitวัน 9อัน
[wạn 9an]
(9 days)
วัน อัน 9.
[ wạn xạn 9.]
(the 9th day)

For Thai, both cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 12, otherwise (above 12) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:

[sìp kan]
(ten cars)

11 คัน
[11 kan]
(11 cars)

The AX NLG platform will add the most common classifier (อัน) for ordinal and cardinal numerals. The classifier precedes ordinal numerals, and stays after cardinal numerals. If you want to use different classifiers, they could be added as plain text. Take คน[khon] for example:

[nákriian khon thisong]
(the student-นักเรียน classifer-คน second-ที่สอง)
the second student

Writing System

Spaces in a Thai text indicate the end of a clause or sentence. There are usually no spaces between words.