Characteristics of the Japanese language in AX Semantics
Generally, Japanese has neither gender nor number for nouns. However, the AX NLG platform supports two numbers (singular and plural) for the usage of personal pronouns. Additionally, Japanese has around thirteen cases for nouns. They are expressed as particles and placed after the noun.
(The house-家が becomes old-古くなる.)
(The house-家は is old-古いです.)
(color-色 of house-家の)
(come-来て to the house-家に)
(paint-塗る the house-家を)
(Let's go-帰ろう home-家へ.)
(from the house)
(can be done-できる at home- 家で)
(with the house)
(more beautiful-美しい than the house-家より)
(walk-歩いて to the house-家まで)
|incomplete list (ya)||家や不動産|
house and real estate
|adjectives (noun)||before noun||かわいい犬|
[Eiga o miru]
( watch a movie)
[Eiga o mite]
(is watching- a movie)
[Eiga o mita]
(watched a movie)
The standard order of a noun phrase in Japanese is the following:
determiner + numeral + noun + adjective + preposition. See for example:
この 3冊の 人気 書籍 について [kono sansatsu ninki shoseki nitsuitsatsu] these three popular book about DET NUM ADJ NOUN PREP "about these three popular books"
Japanese nouns are marked by case particles, which are placed after the nouns.
The basic lexicon entry for 犬[inu] (dog) contains:
- inflection table for case and number:
|Incomplete List (Ya)||犬や||犬や|
There is no need to have lexicon entries for adjectives because in Japanese they are not inflected. As for adjective position, the default is "before noun".
Japanese verbs inflect for tense. The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects incorrectly, you should add it to the lexicon. If you need more tenses, please contact the support.
AX NLG platform supports demonstrative, distal, medial, and possessive determiners for Japanese.
The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.
(nine -九 days-日)
[koko noka me]
(the ninth-九_目 day-日)
[koko noka me]
(the 9th day)
Except for age, hour, date, month, and years, Japanese nouns sometimes need a classifier for cardinal numerals. Take “three cars” for example, you will need the classifier for machinery 台 (dai):
三台車 [san dai kuruma] (three-三 classifier-台 cars-車)
For Japanese, cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 12 on the platform, otherwise (above 12) the output is in digit form. Below you can see an example with a cardinal numeral, which also includes a classifier:
十二匹猫 [juni bbiki neko] (twelve-十二 classifier-匹 cats-猫) vs. 13匹猫 [juzo bbiki neko] (13 classifier-匹 cats-猫)
The Japanese writing system uses a combination of 1) kanji, which are adopted Chinese characters 2) hiragana, which is used primarily for native Japanese words and 3) katakana, used primarily for foreign words and names. They are all supported by the AX NLG platform. Furthermore, there is no space in Japanese sentences except after non-Japanese punctuation or for foreign words.