Characteristics of the Romanian language in AX Semantics


In Romanian, you need to know the gender of a noun to form (together with number and case) the accompanying adjectives, determiners, and pronouns correctly.

Romanian has three genders for nouns: masculine, feminine, and neuter. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Additionally, Romanian has five cases for nouns. However, the nominative and the accusative are identical; similarly, the genitive and the dative share the same form.

grammatical namevaluesexamples
gendermasculineun doctor bătrân
(a good doctor)
feminineo femeie bătrână
(a good woman)
neuterun nume bun
(a good name)
numbersingularun doctor bun
(a good doctor)
pluraldoctori buni
(good doctors)
cases (noun)nominativeun baiat
(a boy)
accusativeVad un baiat.
(I see a boy.)
genitiveGeanta unui baiat.
(The bag of a boy.)
dativeMulțumesc unui baiat.
(Thanks to a boy.)
(Hey, boys!)
adjectives (noun)after nouncasa roșie
(red house)
verb tensespresentel face
(he makes)
pastel a făcut
(he made)
imperfectel făcea
(he was making)

The standard order of a noun phrase in Romanian is the following: preposition + determiner + numeral + noun + adjective. See for example:

despre  aceste  trei   cărți  populare
about   these   three  book   popular
"about these three popular books"



Romanian nouns are inflected for number and case. Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners, adjectives and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.

Note that noun lexicon entries are expected to be in the indefinite form. The AX NLG platform will automatically inflect the definite form, when needed.


The basic lexicon entry for pantof (shoe) contains:

  • gender: masculine
  • inflection table for case and number:


If you need lexicon entries for countries, write to the support about that and you will get them for Romanian with automatic handling of prepositions.


In the lexicon, the inflection table encodes gender, case, and number. For adjective position, the default is "after noun". When an adjective should be before the noun, this has to be configured in the lexicon.

If the adjective stands before the noun, the article and case marker automatically are applied to the adjective instead of the noun. For example:

un bun student (a good student)
bunul student (the good student)

in contrast to:
un student bun (a good student)
studentul bun (the good student)


Romanian verbs inflect for person, number, and tense. The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects incorrectly, you should add it to the lexicon.

The future tense is formed with the present tense form of the auxiliary vrea and the (short) infinitive of the actual verb. See the following example with a face (to make):

el va face (he will do)

The past tense in Romanian is formed via present tense of "a avea" + past participle. Take a face (to make) for example:

eu am făcut (I did)
tu ai făcut (you did)
ei au făcut (they did)

Container settings


The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Romanian: definite, indefinite, demonstrative, and possessive. Possessive determiners stand behind the noun, and noun will be inflected in the definite form. Indefinite and demonstrative determiners stay before the noun as the standard noun phrase order shows.

cartea lui roșie
(his red book)

această carte roșie
(this red book)


The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.

textnouă zile
(nine days)
a noua zi
(the ninth day)
digit9 zile
(9 day)
a 9. zi
(the 9th day)

When a cardinal number determines a noun, the classifier de is inserted between the numeral and the inflected noun, except for the numbers whose last two digits range from 1 to 19. For example:

cardinal numeralexample
7Șapte mașini
7 mașini
(seven cars/7 cars)
20douăzeci de mașini
20 de mașini
(twenty cars/20 cars)
119o sută nouăsprezece mașini
119 mașini
(119 cars)

For Romanian, ordinal numerals are written out until 21, otherwise (above 21) the output is in digit form. Cardinal numerals are written out until 80, otherwise (above 80) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:

optzeci de mașini
(eighty cars)
81 de mașini
(81 cars)

Vowel harmony

The AX platform applies vowel harmonies automatically. In Romanian, this means that some vowels in nouns can change due to adding specific inflectional suffixes. Take Romanian noun pluralization, for example:

floare (flower) -> flori (flowers)
[oa + suffix i => oa becomes o]

băiat (boy) -> băieţi (boys)
[ia + suffix i => ia becomes ie]