Characteristics of the Belarusian language in AX Semantics
In Belarusian, you need to know the gender and animacy of a noun to form (together with number and case) the accompanying adjectives, determiners, numerals, and pronouns correctly.
Belarusian has three genders for nouns: masculine, feminine, and neuter. Masculine nouns also differentiate between animate and inanimate. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Additionally, Belarusian has 6 cases for nouns.
|gender/animacy||masculine inanimate||стары дом|
|masculine animate||стары ле́кар|
(The voice of the lady.)
|dative||Ён дорыць даме кветкі.|
(He gives flowers to the lady.)
|accusative||Ён бачыць даму.|
(He sees the lady.)
|instrumental||Ён ідзе з дамай.|
(He goes with the lady.)
|locative||Дзіця ляжыць на даме.|
(The child lies on the lady.)
|adjectives (noun)||before noun||чырвонае яблык|
|verb tenses||present||ён гуля́е|
|future||ён бу́дзе гуля́ць|
(he will play)
The standard order of a noun phrase in Belarusian is the following:
preposition + determiner + numeral + adjective + noun. See for example:
пра гэтыя тры папулярныя кнігі about these three popular books PREP DET NUM ADJ NOUN "about these three popular books"
Belarusian nouns inflect for case, gender and number. If a lexicon entry is missing, the NLG platform tries to find the most probable gender based on heuristics. The number x case forms of a noun should be added to the lexicon if they are not regular.
Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners, adjectives, numerals and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.
The basic lexicon entry for дом (house) contains:
- gender: masculine
- animacy: inanimate
- inflection table for case and number:
In Belarusian, the default position for an adjective is "before noun". In the inflection table, animacy, gender, case, and number can be encoded.
Belarusian verbs inflect for person, number, tense, and gender. The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects the wrong way, you should add it to the lexicon.
Please note that the future tense can be formed in two ways (imperfective and perfective). For imperfective verbs it is formed by taking the future tense of the auxiliary verb
быць (to be) and the infinitive verb**.** Thus**,** only the auxiliary verb needs to be in a container. For perfective verbs, the present form usually expresses the future tense. See for example the verbs
ігра́ць/пайграць (to play),
я бу́ду йгра́ць. (I will play [imperfective]) я пайграю. (I will play [perfective])
The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Belarusian: demonstratives (distal + proximal) and possessives.
The AX NLG platform supports the following pronouns for Belarusian: personal, demonstratives (distal + proximal), reflexive and possessive.
Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit. Take
дзень (day) for example:
(the ninth day)
(the 9th day)
For Belarusian, ordinal numerals are written out until 12, otherwise (above 12) the output is in digit form. Cardinal numerals are written out until 10, otherwise (above 10) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:
дзесяць дамоў (ten houses) 11 дамоў (11 houses)
In Belarusian, case and number for nouns/adjectives change automatically based on cardinal numerals when it's applicable, for example:
|Numeral||case / number||examples|
(also numbers ending in 1, excluding 11)
|Nominative/Singular||1 прыгожая жанчына|
(1 beautiful woman)
21 прыгожая жанчына
(21 beautiful women)
(also numbers ending in 2, 3, 4, excluding 12, 13, 14)
|- Female nouns/adjectives take genitive/singular |
- Masculine and Neuter nouns/adjectives mostly take nominative/plural
|- 2 прыгожыя жанчыны (2 beautiful women)|
- 3 прыгожыя мужчыны (3 beautiful men)
|>= 5||Genitive/Plural||7 прыгожых жанчын|
(7 beautiful women)
On the AX NLG platform the settings for the container
Германія (Germany) are:
ў Германію (to Germany)
For the below sentence with a different country,
Філіпіны (the Philippines), the platform settings are the same as above (
case="acc"), but the lexical information changes the preposition:
на Філіпіны (to the Philippines)
The AX platform applies sound shifts automatically when inflection happens (e.g., by adding a suffix). This involves consonant changes; for example, when the word ends in the consonants
х , the suffix
ы changes to
пірог(nom, s) + ы → пірагі (nom, p)
Sound shifts also involve accent changes; for example,
э only exist when stressed, so if the suffix is unstressed, the letters
э change to
крыло (nom, s) + ам → крылам (dat, p)