Characteristics of the Catalan language in AX Semantics
In Catalan, you need to know the number and gender of a noun to form the accompanying adjectives, determiners, numerals, and pronouns correctly.
Catalan has two genders for nouns: masculine and feminine. There are also two numbers: singular and plural. Additionally, Catalan has only one case for nouns, but three cases for pronouns.
|number||singular||un cotxe vell|
(one old car)
|plural||cinc cotxes vells|
(five old cars)
|case (noun)||nominative||el gos (the dog)|
|case (pronoun)||nominative||Mario construeix una casa. Ell construeix una casa.|
(Mario builds a house. He builds a house.)
|accusative||Marío construeix una casa. Marío la construeix.|
(Mario builds a house. Mario builds it.)
|dative||La Maria regala un llibre a Luigi. La Maria li regala un llibre.|
(Maria gives Luigi a book. Maria gives him a book.)
|adjectives (noun)||after noun||una poma vermella|
(a red apple)
|before noun||una bona poma|
(a good apple)
|verb tenses||present||ell canta|
|past (imperfect)||ell cantava|
(he will sing)
The standard order of a noun phrase in Catalan is the following:
preposition + determiner + numeral + noun + adjective. See for example:
sobre aquests tres cantants populars about these three singers popular PREP DET NUM NOUN ADJ "about these three popular singers"
Catalan nouns are inflected for number. When the lexicon entry is missing, the NLG platform will try to find the most probable gender based on heuristics. However, nouns should be added to the lexicon with their grammatical gender if they do not inflect regularly.
Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners, adjectives, numerals, and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.
The basic lexicon entry for pare (father) contains:
- gender: masculine
- inflection table for case and number:
In the lexicon, the inflection table encodes number and gender. For adjective position, the default is "after noun".
Catalan verbs inflect for person, number, and tense. The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects incorrectly, you should add it to the lexicon.
The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Catalan: definite, indefinite, demonstratives (proximal + distal), and possessives.
The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.
|el novè dia|
(the ninth day)
|el 9è dia|
(the 9th day)
For Catalan, both cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 20, otherwise (above 20) the output is in digit form. For example:
vint cotxes (twenty cars) 21 cotxes (21 cars)
Preposition and Determiner: contraction
If users configure prepositions in the container, they are automatically adapted, if phonetic assimilation needs to happen.
"al" is a contraction of the preposition "a" (to) and the definite article "el" (the). For example:
"Vull anar al parc." (I want to go to the park.)
Determiners can be switched according to lexicon information. If there are definite determiners (e.g., for country names) for a noun phrase, they will be activated for the container. For the first example, the default for determiner is used:
None (no article). The container setting is:
Viatgen a Alemanya. (They travel to Germany.)
As for the second example, the container settings for
Països Baixos (Netherlands) are still:
case="nominative", but determiner switch is set in its lexicon information.
Viatgen als Països Baixos. (They travel to the Netherlands.)
Thus, a determiner switches from
definite. Then, the definite determiner automatically contracted with preposition, so it becomes