Characteristics of the Tagalog language in AX Semantics


In Tagalog, you need to know the case and number of a noun to form the accompanying determiners and pronouns correctly. Tagalog has four cases: direct, indirect, oblique, and locative. Additionally, Tagalog has two numbers: singular, and plural. There is no gender in Tagalog.

The standardized form of Tagalog is called Filipino. It is the national language of the Philippines.

grammatical namevaluesexamples
pluralmga ibon
casedirectang ibon
(the bird)
indirectmakita ang ibon
(see the bird)
obliquebigyan ng tinapay ang ibon
(give bread to the bird)
locativeisa ang ibon
(on the bird)
adjectives (noun)before nounpulang bahay
(red house)
verb tensespresentSiya/ito gumagana.
(He/she/it works.)
pastSiya/ito ay gumana.
(He worked.)
futureSiya/ito ay gagana.
(He will work.)

The standard order of a noun phrase in Tagalog is the following: preposition + numeral + adjective + noun + determiner. See for example:

tungkol sa tatlong bagong aklat  na ito
about      three   new    books  these
PREP       NUM     ADJ    NOUN   DET                                             
"about these three new books"



Nouns are not inflected, but they might be preceded by case-marking or number-marking particles. Thus, case and number are required in the noun lexicon. Nouns should be added to the lexicon if they are not regular.

Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners, and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.


The basic lexicon entry for lalaki (man) contains:

  • lexicon table for case and number:
Directlalakimga lalaki
Indirectlalakimga lalaki
Obliquelalakimga lalaki
Locativelalakimga lalaki


In Tagalog, adjectives do not inflect. The default position for an adjective is "before noun".


Tagalog verbs only inflect for tense. The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects incorrectly, you should add it to the lexicon.

Container settings


The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Tagalog: indefinite, definite, demonstratives (proximal + distal) and possessives.


The AX NLG platform supports the following pronouns for Tagalog: demonstratives (proximal + distal), personal, and 3rd possessives.


Two different sets of numbers are used in Tagalog: a set of native Tagalog numbers (originally from Malay), and a set of numbers from Spanish. The native Tagalog numbers are used on AX NLG platform.

Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit. Take araw (day) for example:

textsiyam na araw
(nine days)
ang ikasiyam na araw
(the ninth day)
digit9 na araw
(9 days)
ang ika-9 na araw
(the 9th day)

As the above example shows, the numeric ordinals in Tagalog are formed by using the prefix ika-. Additionally, to describe the quantity, the cardinal number is placed before the noun and affixed with -ng when the numeral ends with a vowel, and a separate word, -na, for numerals ending in a consonant. For example:

dalawang araw
(two days)
siyam na araw
(nine days)

For Tagalog, both cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 10 on the platform, otherwise (above 10) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:

sampung aso
(ten dogs)
11 aso 
(11 dogs)