Characteristics of the French language in AX Semantics

Fundamentals

In French, you need to know the gender of the noun in order to form the accompanying determiners, adjectives and numerals correctly.

French has two genders for nouns: masculine and feminine. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Additionally, it only has 1 case for nouns: nominative.

grammatical namevaluesexamples
gendermasculinele port bleu (the blue port)
femininela voiture bleue (the blue car)
------
numbersingularune maison rouge (a red house)
pluraldeux maisons rouges (two red houses)
------
cases (noun)nominativele chien (the dog)
------
verb tensespresentil écrit **** (He writes)
past (Passé simple)il écrivit (He wrote)
imperfect (Imparfait)il écrivait (He wrote)
futureil écrira (He will write)
past participleécrit (written)

The standard order of a noun phrase in French is the following: preposition + determiner + numeral + noun + adjective.

See for example:

avec   ces    trois  livres     populaires
about  these  three  books[pl]  popular
PREP   DET    NUM    NOUN       ADJ
"about these three popular books"

Lexicon

Nouns

For French nouns the LEXICON needs to encode gender and preposition changes.

The case forms should be added to the lexicon if they are not regular.

Examples

The basic lexicon entry for maison (house) contains:

  • gender: feminine
  • inflection table for case and number:
SingularPlural
Nominativemaisonmaisons

note

If you need lexicon entries for countries, write to the support about that and you will get them for French with automatic handling of determiners.

Adjectives

In the lexicon the inflection table for gender and number can be encoded, as well as the adjective position (before the noun or after the noun).

For position, the default is after the noun. When an adjective should be before the noun, this has to be encoded in the lexicon.

Verbs

The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects the wrong way, you should add it to the lexicon.

Container settings

Numerals

The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.

cardinalordinal
textneuf jours
(nine days)
le neuvième jour
(the ninth day)
digit9 jours
(9 days)
le 9e jour
(the 9th day)

For French, ordinal numerals are written out until 20, otherwise (above 20) the output is in digit form. Cardinal numerals are written out until 30, otherwise (above 30) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example,

trente voitures
(thirty cars)
31 voitures
(31 cars)

Prepositions and determiners: contractions

If users configure prepositions in the container, they are automatically adapted, if phonetic assimilation needs to happen. The preposition de for example is shortened before words beginning with a vowel. For example:

d'Amélie
(from Amélie)

Prepositions can also be contracted with determiners. For example:

au jardin [= à le jardin]
(in the garden)

Determiners, like prepositions, are also shortened before words beginning with a vowel. For example:

l'ordinateur
(the computer)

Examples

Preposition switch

Prepositions (i.e. à, dans, en) can be switched depending on the noun.

In the sentence

Ils voyageaient de Berlin au Canada.
(They were traveling from Berlin to Canada.)

the settings for the container are: determiner="definite", preposition="en", and case="nominative". Here a preposition switch happens from en to à (which is contracted with le to au in this case).

Determiner switch

For the same sentence but with another country (i.e. France) the platform settings are the same, but the lexical information is changing the results:

Ils voyageaient de Berlin en France.
(They were traveling from Berlin to France.)

On the AX NLG platform, the noun container is used the same way as in the first example: preposition="en" and determiner=definite. The information from the lexicon about the removal of the determiner is automatically applied by using the lexicon.

Language Variants

The AX NLG platform offers 5 variants of the French language:

  • France (Standard)
  • Belgium
  • Canada
  • Luxembourg
  • Switzerland

Different dialects of French show various accents and lexical differences. For example in Standard French 70 is written as soixante-dix whereas in Swiss French it is written as septante.