Characteristics of the French language in AX Semantics
In French, you need to know the gender of the noun in order to form the accompanying determiners, adjectives and numerals correctly.
French has two genders for nouns: masculine and feminine. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Additionally, it only has 1 case for nouns: nominative.
|gender||masculine||le port bleu (the blue port)|
|feminine||la voiture bleue (the blue car)|
|number||singular||une maison rouge (a red house)|
|plural||deux maisons rouges (two red houses)|
|cases (noun)||nominative||le chien (the dog)|
|verb tenses||present||il écrit (he writes)|
|past (Passé simple)||il écrivit (he wrote)|
|imperfect (Imparfait)||il écrivait (he wrote)|
|future||il écrira (he will write)|
|past participle||écrit (written)|
The standard order of a noun phrase in French is the following:
preposition + determiner + numeral + noun + adjective.
See for example:
avec ces trois livres populaires about these three books[pl] popular PREP DET NUM NOUN ADJ "about these three popular books"
For French nouns the LEXICON needs to encode gender and preposition changes.
The case forms should be added to the lexicon if they are not regular.
The basic lexicon entry for maison (house) contains:
- gender: feminine
- inflection table for case and number:
If you need lexicon entries for countries, write to the support about that and you will get them for French with automatic handling of determiners.
In the lexicon the inflection table for gender and number can be encoded, as well as the adjective position (before the noun or after the noun).
For position, the default is "after noun". When an adjective should be before the noun, this has to be encoded in the lexicon.
The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects the wrong way, you should add it to the lexicon.
The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for French: definite, indefinite, demonstrative, and possessive.
The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.
|le neuvième jour|
(the ninth day)
|le 9e jour|
(the 9th day)
For French, ordinal numerals are written out until 20, otherwise (above 20) the output is in digit form. Cardinal numerals are written out until 30, otherwise (above 30) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:
trente voitures (thirty cars) 31 voitures (31 cars)
Prepositions and determiners: contractions
If users configure prepositions in the container, they are automatically adapted, if phonetic assimilation needs to happen. The preposition
de for example is shortened before words beginning with a vowel. For example:
d'Amélie (from Amélie)
Prepositions can also be contracted with determiners. For example:
au jardin [= à le jardin] (in the garden)
Determiners, like prepositions, are also shortened before words beginning with a vowel. For example:
l'ordinateur (the computer)
en) can be switched depending on the noun.
In the sentence below, the settings for the container are:
Ils voyageaient de Berlin au Canada. (They were traveling from Berlin to Canada.)
Here a preposition switch happens from
à (which is contracted with
au in this case).
For the same sentence but with another country (i.e. France) the platform settings are the same, but the lexical information is changing the results:
Ils voyageaient de Berlin en France. (They were traveling from Berlin to France.)
On the AX NLG platform, the noun container is used the same way as in the first example:
determiner=definite. However, a determiner switch (i.e., "without definite article") is automatically applied according to the lexicon information.
The AX NLG platform offers 5 variants of the French language:
- France (Standard)
Different dialects of French show various accents and lexical differences. For example in Standard French 70 is written as
soixante-dix whereas in Swiss French it is written as