Characteristics of the Korean language in AX Semantics


Generally, Korean has no gender. However, the AX NLG platform supports two genders (masculine and feminine) for the usage of personal pronouns. There are two numbers: singular and plural, which are needed to form accompanying determiners, numerals, and pronouns correctly. Additionally, Korean has around six cases for nouns.

grammatical namevaluesexamples
gender (pronoun)masculine차는 그의 것이다.
[chaneun geuui geosida]
(The car is his.)
feminine차는 그녀의 것이다.
[chaneun geunyeoui geosida]
(The car is hers.)
(personal pronoun)
cases (noun)nominative아이는
genitive아이의 공
[[aiui gong]
(child's ball)
dative나는 아이에게 공을 준다.
[naneun aiege gong-eul junda]
(I give the ball to the child.)
accusative나는 그 아이를 본다.
[naneun geu aileul bonda]
(I see the child.)
instrumental나는 어린아이로 선택되었다.
[naneun eolin-ailo seontaegdoeeossda.]
(I was chosen as a child.)
vocative이봐, 아이야!
[ibwa aiya!]
(Hey, child!)
adjectives (noun)before noun빨간 집
[ppalgan jib]
(red house)
verb tensespresent그는 먹는다
[geuneun meogneunda]
(he eats)
present polite그는 먹어요
[geuneun meogeoyo]
(he eats)
past그는 먹었다
[geuneun meogeossda]
(he ate)
future그는 먹겠다
[geuneun meokgetda]
(he will eat)

The standard order of a noun phrase in Korean is the following:

determiner + numeral + adjective + noun + preposition

See for example:

이      세 가지    인기있는       책에     대해
[i     se gaji   ingiissneun  chaege  daehae]
these  three     popular      book    about
DET    NUM       ADJ          NOUN    PREP
"about these three popular books"



Korean nouns are inflected for number and case.


The basic lexicon entry for 아이는 [aineun] (child) contains:

  • inflection table for case and number:
Nominative아이 [aineun]아이들은 [aideuleun]
Genitive아이 [aiui]아이들의 [aideului]
Dative아이에*게 [aiege]아이들에게 [aideulege]
Accusative아이 [aileul]아이들을 [aideuleul]
Instrumental아이 [airo]아이으로 [aideula]
Vocative아이 [aiya]아이들아 [aideuleuro]


Currently, you can't create lexicon entries for Korean adjectives, since they are not inflected if used in the present tense. Contact support if you need to inflect adjectives for other tenses.


Korean verbs inflect for tense. If a verb inflects incorrectly, you should add it to the lexicon.

Container settings


The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Korean: demonstrative, medial, distal, and possessive. Korean does not have definite and indefinite determiners.


The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.

text고양이 네 개
[goyangi ne gae]
(four cats)
네 번째 고양이
[ne beonjjae goyangi]
(the fourth cat)
digit고양이 4 개
[goyangi ne gae]
(4 cats)
4번째 고양이
[ne beonjjae goyangi]
(the 4th cat)

For Korean, both cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 12 on the platform, otherwise (above 12) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:

펜 열두 개
[pen yeoldu gae]
(twelve pens)
펜 13 개
[pen 13 gae]
(13 pens)

If an ordinal is used in the noun container, the AX NLG platform will add the most common ordinal marker, "번째 [beonjjae]". If a cardinal is used in the noun container, the AX NLG platform will add the most common classifier, "개 [gae]". However, if different ordinal markers or classifiers are needed, they have to be added manually in plain text. Note that when cardinal numerals accompany a noun, the order of the noun phrase will change to: noun + numeral.

Vowel harmony

The last character of a word may change based on the preceding character. Korean vowels have either positive or negative values. The vowels that point up or to the right side are seen as positive/bright :ㅏ [a], ㅗ [o]. The vowels that point down or to the left are seen as negative/dark:ㅓ [eo], ㅜ [u]. The positive and negative vowels are generally used in pairs, which is called “vowel harmony”. It appears mainly in the stem or endings of verbs, as well as in mimetic words and onomatopoeia. We currently do not support automatic vowel harmony for Korean.