Characteristics of the Romansh language in AX Semantics
In Romansh, you need to know the gender and number of a noun to form the accompanying adjectives, determiners, pronouns, and numerals correctly.
Romansh has two genders for nouns: masculine and feminine. There are two numbers: singular and plural. The AX NLG platform uses the nominative as the default case for Romansh, even though Romansh has no grammatical cases generally.
|plural||chasas **** grandas|
|adjectives (noun)||after noun||mail cotschen|
|verb tenses||present||el gida|
The standard order of a noun phrase in Romansh is the following:
preposition + determiner + numeral + noun + adjective. See for example:
da quests trais cudeschs novs about these three books new PREP DET NUM NOUN ADJ "about these three new books"
Romansh nouns inflect for number. Nouns should be added to the lexicon if they are not regular.
Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners, adjectives, numerals and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.
The basic lexicon entry for chasa (house) contains:
- gender: feminine
- inflection table for case and number:
In Romansh, the default position for an adjective is "after noun". In the inflection table gender and number can be encoded.
Romansh verbs inflect for person, number, and tense. The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects the wrong way, you should add it to the lexicon.
The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Romansh: definite, indefinite, demonstratives (distal + proximal), personal 2nd plural, and possessives.
The AX NLG platform supports the following pronouns for Romansh: personal, demonstrative (proximal), and possessives.
Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit. Take di (day) for example:
|il novavel di|
(the ninth day)
|il 9. di|
(the 9th day)
For Romansh, ordinal numerals are written out until 15, otherwise (above 15) the output is in digit form. Cardinal numerals are written out until 20, otherwise (above 20) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:
ventg chauns (twenty dogs) vs. 21 chauns (21 dogs)
On the AX NLG platform, Romansh prepositions (e.g.
da) are automatically joined with determiners . For example, the preposition
da is contracted with the definite article
dal bap (about the father) [da + il = dal]
Similar to contractions with prepositions, Romansh determiners contract with the next word automatically if it starts with a vowel. See for example:
il + ami = l'ami (the friend) ina + amia = in'amia (a girlfriend)
Determiners can be switched according to lexical information. If you set the determiner switch for a specific noun in the lexicon, it will automatically switch to another determiner when you add the determiner you intend to switch in the container.