Characteristics of the Romansh language in AX Semantics


In Romansh, you need to know the gender and number of a noun to form the accompanying adjectives, determiners, pronouns, and numerals correctly.

Romansh has two genders for nouns: masculine and feminine. There are two numbers: singular and plural. The AX NLG platform uses nominative as the default case for Romansh, even though Romansh has no grammatical cases generally.

grammatical namevaluesexamples
gendermasculinebuob giuven
(young boy)
femininemamma giuvna
(young mother)
numbersingularchasa granda
(big house)
pluralchasas **** grandas
(big houses)
adjectives (noun)after nounmail cotschen
(red apple)
verb tensespresentel gida
(he helps)
pastel gidava
(he helped)

The standard order of a noun phrase in Romansh is the following: preposition + determiner + numeral + noun + adjective. See for example:

da     quests   trais  cudeschs novs
about  these    three  books    new
PREP   DET      NUM    NOUN     ADJ
"about these three new books"



Romansh nouns inflect for number. Nouns should be added to the lexicon if they are not regular.

Lexicon entries for nouns may also be necessary for inflecting determiners, adjectives, numerals and pronouns correctly. They are omitted, if a lexicon entry is required, but missing.


The basic lexicon entry for chasa (house) contains:

  • gender: feminine
  • inflection table for case and number:


In Romansh, the default position for an adjective is "after noun". In the inflection table gender and number can be encoded.


Romansh verbs inflect for person, number, and tense. The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects the wrong way, you should add it to the lexicon.

Container settings


The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Romansh: definite, indefinite, demonstratives (distal + proximal), personal 2nd plural, and possessives.


The AX NLG platform supports the following pronouns for Romansh: personal, demonstrative (proximal), and possessives.


Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit. Take di (day) for example:

textnov dis
(nine days)
il novavel di
(the ninth day)
digitnov dis
(9 days)
il 9. di
(the 9th day)

For Romansh, both cardinal and ordinal numerals are written out until 20 on the platform, otherwise (above 20) the output is in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example:

ventg chauns
(twenty dogs)
21 chauns
(21 dogs)


On the AX NLG platform, Romansh prepositions (e.g. a or da) are automatically joined with determiners . For example, the preposition da is contracted with the definite article il:

dal bap (about the father) [da + il = dal]

Similar to contractions with prepositions, Romansh determiners contract with the next word automatically if it starts with a vowel. See for example:

il + ami = l'ami (the friend)
ina + amia = in'amia (a girlfriend)

Determiner switch

Determiners can be switched according to lexical information. If you set the determiner switch for a specific noun in the lexicon, it will automatically switch to another determiner when you add the determiner you intend to switch in the container.