Characteristics of the Latin language in AX Semantics


In Latin, you need to know the gender of the noun in order to form the accompanying determiners, adjectives, and numerals correctly.

Latin has three genders for nouns: masculine, feminine and neuter. There are two numbers: singular and plural. Additionally, Latin has six cases for nouns.

grammatical namevaluesexamples
gendersmasculinedomus magnus (big house)
femininefilia magna (big daughter)
neuterbellum magnum (big war)
numberssingularbellum magnum (a great war)
pluralduo bella magna (two great wars)
cases (noun)nominativeliber (book)
genitivetitulus librī
(the book's title)
accusativeVideo librum.
(I see the book.)
ablativeMulta didici ex librō.
(I learned a lot from the book.)
adjectives (noun)before nounmagnus domus
after noun (default)domus magnus
verb tensespresentis videt (he sees)
pastis vidit (he saw)

The standard order of a noun phrase in Latin is the following:

preposition + determiner + numeral + noun + adjective

See for example:

de     his    tribus  libris     popularibus
about  these  three   books[pl]  popular
PREP   DET    NUM     NOUN       ADJ
"about these three popular books"



For Latin nouns, the lexicon needs to encode gender, case, and determiner changes. The plural forms should be added to the lexicon if they are not regular.


The basic lexicon entry for aqua (water) contains:

  • gender: f
  • inflection table for case and number:


In the lexicon, the inflection table for gender, case, and number can be encoded. For adjective position, the default is "after noun".


The most common verbs are encoded in our software. If a verb inflects the wrong way, you should add it to the lexicon.

Container settings


The AX NLG platform supports the following determiners for Latin: demonstrative, distal, medial, relative and possessive.


The noun will automatically agree with the numeral number when a numeral variable is used. Four types of numerals are possible on the AX NLG platform: cardinal, cardinal as digit, ordinal, and ordinal as digit.

textnovem dies
(nine days)
nonus dies
(the ninth day)
digit9 dies
(9 days)
9. dies
(the 9th day)

For Latin, cardinal and ordinal numerals up to 20 and multiples of 10 up to 100 (e.g. 30, 40, etc.) are written out on the platform. The outputs of other numerals are in digit form. Take cardinal numerals for example (written out vs. digit):

viginti cars
(twenty cars)
octoginta cars
(eighty cars)
21 cars
(21 cars)

Preposition switch

On the AX NLG platform the settings for the container "Iaponiam" (Japan) are: preposition="in" and case="accusative".

Ex Germania in Iaponiam volant.
(They are flying from Germany to Japan.)

For the below sentence but with a different country (i.e. the United States), the platform settings are the same as above (preposition="in" and case="accusative"), but the lexical information changes the result:

Ex Germania ad Civitates Foederatas volant.
(They fly from Germany to the United States.)

The second example shows the preposition switch from in to ad for "Civitates Foederatas" (the United States).